Campbell Family


Inverary Castle - Argyll, Scotland

Seat of the Dukes of Argyll (Campbells)


The year 1684 in Scotland was known as the start of "the Killing time." Covenanters risked being shot out of hand.

Charles II of England left no legitimate son but heaped honors upon his illegitimate son James Scott and made him the first Duke of Monmouth. When Charles died in February 1685, he was succeeded by his brother, James II.

Monmouth was in Holland. Though he personally seems to have had very little ambition to seize the crown, he was persuaded by his Protestant advisors, notably the ninth Earl of Argyll, to launch an invasion in the west country, with the aim of wresting the crown from his uncle, James II of England (James VII of Scotland), while Argyll landed in Scotland.

The Protestant Monmouth became a figurehead for those opposed to the Catholic James, Duke of York. Against his better judgment, on 11th June 1685 Monmouth set sail for England. He sailed into Lyme Regis harbor accompanied by 80-odd hopeful men. His small band soon swelled to 3000 (some say 6000) as volunteers flocked to his cause.

During the "Monmouth Rebellion" our ancestor JOHN CAMPBELL, a Scottish Covenanter, was imprisoned in Edinburgh and exiled to East Jersey in July 1685, when he followed his Laird, the ninth Earl of Argyll, in the failed northern attack against the royalists in Scotland while Monmouth's army was being defeated at the Battle of Sedgemoor in Somerset, England. Argyll was captured, imprisoned, and executed in Edinburgh.

Inverary Castle in Inverary, Argyll, is still the residence of the laird of the Campbells, the Duke of Argyll,

Archibald, eighth Earl, was a very notable figure in Scottish affairs during the seventeenth century. He was Commander-in-Chief of the Covenanters. In 1641 he had been raised in the Peerage by Charles I. to the rank of Marquess of Argyll; but in 1645 he was defeated by his valiant rival, the great Marquess of Montrose, at the battles of Inverlochy and Kilsyth. His insincerity was shown when at Charles II’s Coronation in January 1650-51 at Scone, he placed the Crown on the King’s head, and shortly afterwards he assisted at the Proclamation of Cromwell as Protector in Scotland. When Charles II. was restored to the throne in 1660 Argyll went to London thinking to ingratiate himself with the King; but he was sternly repulsed, accused of treason, tried, and executed at Edinburgh in May 1661.

Archibald, ninth Earl of Argyll, son of the foregoing nobleman, had a similar fate. The original title and estates had been restored to him, but he was of a turbulent nature, and, having resisted the Test Act, he was tried for treason, and condemned to death in 1681, the date being left to the King’s discretion. Argyll was imprisoned in Edinburgh Castle, from which place he escaped. Returning to this country, he endeavoured to organise a rebellion in favour of the Duke of Monmouth, but failed in the project, was captured and executed without another trial upon the decision of 1681 at Edinburgh in 1685, his title and estates being forfeited. His eldest son, Archibald, succeeded, and had his father’s forfeited estates and titles restored, thus becoming tenth Earl of Argyll.

Freddy Gillies
Dalraid Books from Ardminish Press, 2003

"AD 498 Fergus, one of the three sons of Erc, headed an expedition across the waters of the Moyle from Antrim, he arrived in Southend and he set up the Kingdom of Dalraida. It was Fergus who constructed Dunaverty fort high on the rock of the same name, forerunner of the later castle that figured prominently in Kintyre's history over the ensuing twelve centuries.

"In 712 Daraidan King Sealbach laid siege to the castle, King Haakon of Norway took it for a brief period in 1263, and Robert the Bruce was given refuge there in 1306 as he prepared for the wars of independence.

"King James IV during a visit to Dunaverty Castle in 1494 enraged Somerled descendant John Catthanach McDonald when he installed a new governor and extra cannon. McDonald in full view of the astonished king and his small bodyguard hanged the new governor from the battlements before fleeing to Rathlin Island.* He was later betrayed and executed.

"The greatest atrocity committed at Dunaverty occurred in 1647 when the army of Covenanter General David Leslie besieged the Royalist McDonalds.

"A six-week siege ended when the castle's water supply gave out due to mischief on the part of the Covenanters and Lord Archibald McDonald was left with no alternative but to surrender honorably. His pleas for mercy were ignored out of hand and Leslie's forces butchered 300 McDonald clansmen in cold blood, thus ending the family's considerable influence in Kintyre forever.

"It is worth note that Leslie's army at the time included 2000 members of the Campbell clan."

Note by Doris:

* Rathlin Island is between Northern Ireland and the Mull of Kintyre, that 13-mile stretch of sea between the two; I drove to the N. Ireland side and saw the Giants Causeway, and two days later (by car, ferry, train, and car) was on the Scottish side. There's a legend about an Irish giant Finn McCool and a Scottish giant Angus __ using the Giants Causeway to go back and forth.

The more famous (or infamous) Glencoe Massacre by Campbells and others of their McDonald hosts (on order from the King of England) occurred in 1692 ~ seven years after our ancestor John Campbell (son of Walter) from Mull of Kintyre was imprisoned in Canongate Toolbooth in Edinburgh, then exiled to America in 1685 (the same year the Laird of the Campbells, Duke of Argyle, leader of the Covenanters, was imprisoned in Canongate and then executed for treason).

 David Dobson's book, Scots Colonists in North America Supplement 1607-1707, tells us that our ancestor JOHN CAMPBELL, Carrisk, Loch Fyneside, Argyll, a Covenanter imprisoned in Paul's Work [Edinburgh] then in Canongate Tolbooth, banished to the American Plantations [24] Jul 1685, transported from Leith to East New Jersey on the Henry and Francis of Newcastle, master Richard Hutton, 5 Sep 1685, arrived 7 Dec 1685. [Privy Council 11.329] [NWI.I.422]; an indentured servant transported into East New Jersey by Lord Neill Campbell Dec 1685. [EJ Deeds, Liber A, fo.225]


Ships from Scotland to America, 1628-1828, also by David Dobson, says about the Henry and Francis of Newcastle, "Master Richard Hutton, 350 tons, 20 guns, from Leith via Montrose, Aberdeen, and Kirkwall to New Jersey with passengers, 5 Sep 1685 [SRO E72.15.32, SRO.RH18.l.93]"
SRO = Scottish Record Office
E = Exchequer

RH = Register House
PC = Privy Council
NWI = ? must look up

The term "Covenanter" was explained, and conditions on the Henry and Francis of Newcastle voyage described:

Ships from Scotland to America, 1628-1828, also by D. Dobson, says about the Henry and Francis of Newcastle, "Master Richard Hutton, 350 tons, 20 guns, from Leith via Montrose, Aberdeen, and Kirkwall to New Jersey with passengers, 5 Sep 1685 [SRO E72.15.32, SRO.RH18.l.93]" (SRO = Scottish Record Office, E = Exchequer, RH = Register House).

Another source:

"In the month of December, 1685, an arrival of more than ordinary interest occurred at the Point. A vessel freighted with Scotchmen upon whom persecution had wrought the work of purification and whose souls had been tempered for patient endurance by sore trials and misfortunes, anchored in the harbor. They were Scotch Covenanters, members of the Cameronians, a sect of Scotch Presbyterian dissenters. James I. had enforced on his Scottish subjects a liturgy which the people abhorred. This exercise of the royal prerogative led in 1638 to the formation of a covenant in behalf of the true religion and freedom of the Kirkdom. The organization of the Scottish Presbytery was still further completed in the adoption of the Presbyterian form of church government, a Calvinistic confession of faith, and the two catechisms, which documents are still the standard of the Scottish Kirk. The act of English and Scottish parliaments against conventicles, the legalized persecutions, with other irritating matters, exasperated the Covenanters to a point where they thought forbearance ceased to be a duty. They therefore took up arms against the royal power and were disastrously beaten, and many executed and imprisoned. They largely were inhabitants of the Lowlands of Scotland, the Highlanders being generally adherents of the Roman Catholic religion or the Church of England.

To these people America offered a refuge, and through the exertions of George Scot, Laird of Pitlochrie, early in May, 1685, a ship of three hundred and fifty tons named the "Henry and Francis" of Newcastle, England, was chartered. On September 5, 1685, the vessel left the harbor of Leith, Scotland, having on board nearly two hundred passengers, some of whom had been on board since the previous summer. The voyage was long and disastrous, fifteen weeks being consumed in crossing the ocean. A fever of a malignant type broke out, and the meat, owing probably to the length of time which had elapsed since the vessel was chartered, became offensive and uneatable. As many as seventy died at sea, among whom was George Scot, Laird of Pitlochie, his wife also, her sister-in-law, Lady Althernie, and her two children.

"The charge for transportation as publicly announced was £5 sterling for each adult, and to each of those who were unable to pay for their passage was promised twenty-five acres of land and a suit of new clothes on the completion of four years' service to those who advanced the requisite amount. After their arrival, considerable difficulty took place on account of those that had come over without paying their passage money. An attempt was made to have them serve their four years' indenture in consideration of the expense incurred by Scot for their transportation. This they would not agree to, and suits were brought. The jury returned a verdict for the plaintiff of £5 sterling and costs. It is a difficult matter to determine how many of these Scotch Covenanters became permanent residents of Perth Amboy. A large number of them returned to England; others, on the accession of William and Mary to the throne of England, returned to their native land."

In Perth Amboy, New Jersey, a roster of the banished passengers on the Henry and Frances of Newcastle was recorded:

"In 1685, George Scot, Laird of Pitlochie, was given his liberty in Scotland provided he transported to East Jersey many of the Covenanters who had refused to take the oath of allegiance to a tyrannical and profligate ruler. Thus authorized, he proceeded to gather his company from those confined in the tolbooth of Leith. He had to give security to land them there prior to September, 1686, and the penalty was to be five hundred merks in case of failure in any instance. In May, 1685, Scot chartered the Henry and Francis of Newcastle, a ship of three hundred fifty tons and twenty great guns, with Richard Hutton as master.

"On the eve of their banishment, twenty-eight of them signed the following conjunct testimony, bearing "That, now to leave their own native and Covenanted land by an unjust sentence of banishment for owning truth and standing by duty, studying to keep their Covenants engagement and baptismal vows, whereby they stand obliged to resist and testiry against all that is contrary to the Word of God and their Covenants; and that their sentence of banishment ran chiefly because they refused the oath of allegiance which in conscience they could not take, because in so doing they thought utterly declined the Lord Jesus Christ from having any power in His own house, and practically would, by taking it, sat, He was not King and Head of His Church and over them consciences. And, on the contrary, this was to take and put it in His room a man whose breath is in his nostrils; yea, a man who is a sworn enemy to religion; an avowed papist, whom, by our Covenants, we are bound to withstand and disown, and that agreeably to Scripture:

"When thou art come into the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee, and shall possess it, and shalt dwell therein, and shalt say, I will set a King over me, like as all the nations that are about me, thou shalt in any wise set him a King over thee, whom the Lord thy God shalt choose: one from among thy brethren shalt thou set King over three; thou mayest not set a stranger over three, which is not thy brother. Deut. 17:14-15.

"They then bore their testimony against the defections of the day, and for preaching in the fields and homes, and then signed their names. As Wodrow has given these names of the banished, we have thought it proper to insert them here."

The lengthy list of about 125 names included Robert, David, John, and William Campbell.

"The charge for transportation was five pounds for each adult and to each of those who were unable to pay for their passage was issued twenty-five acres of land and a suit of new clothes on the completion of four years of service; for children under twelve years of age, fifty shillings; sucking children free; one ton of goods, forty shillings. These have been known in American History as 'Redemptioners.' Many of these passengers had endured much suffering.

"After some delay, the ship sailed from the road of Leith, September 5, 1685. We hear of no untoward event until after they had turned the Land's End, when a fever began to prevail with virulence, particularly among the prisoners who had been confined in the great vault of Dunnotter. Many were sick when they came aboard, and the health of others was endangered by the condition of the provisions laid in by the Captain. The meat began to putrefy and was not eatable. In a month the fever assumed a malignant type. Few escaped its ravages, and three or four bodies were cast overboard every day. Most of the ship's crew, except the Captain and boatswain, died.

"Pitlochie, who had freighted the ship, with his lady, died likewise, and so enjoyed nothing of the gain of nearly one hundred prisoners gifted him by the Council, and upwards of seventy persons died at sea. Death and unwholesome food were not the only evils the unfortunate Covenanters had to encounter, the master of the ship was most cruel to the prisoners. Those who were placed under deck were not allowed to go about worship, and when they attempted it the Captain would throw down great planks of timber to disturb them and endanger their lives. The ship sprang a leak twice, and frequent storms added to their anxiety. After the death of Pitlochie, the prisoners fell into the hands of John Johnston, his son-in-law. Captain Hutton began to tamper with Mr. Johnstone, and urged him to carry the prisoners to Virginia or Jamaica, either places presenting better opportunity for disposing of them than New Jersey, and offered as an inducement to charge himself with the disposal of the prisoners and to account to him for them in the productions of the country. But the wind changed and they were forced to sail straight for New Jersey. They landed in Perth Amboy, New Jersey, in the middle of December, 1685, having been about fifteen weeks at sea.

"Before going ashore, Johnstone endeavored to stop them by urging them to sign an agreement to serve four years at that place in consideration of the expense incurred by the departed Scot. This they would not agree to, but joined in another protest against their banishment and recounted their harsh treatment during the voyage. When they came ashore, the people who lived on the coast and had not the gospel preached to them, were inhospitable and showed them no kindness. A little way up the country, however, there was a town (supposed to be Woodbridge), and a minister settled, and the inhabitants were very kind to them. When they learned who the prisoners were and their circumstances, they invited all who were able to travel to come and live with them, and sent horses for the rest, and entertained them freely and liberally that winter.

"In the following spring, John Johnstone pursued them and had them all cited before a legal tribunal of the Province. After hearing both sides, the Governor called a jury to sit and cognosce upon the affair, who found that the pannels had not of their own accord come to that ship, nor bargained with Pitlochie for money or service, and therefore, according to the laws of the country, they were assoiled. Those who had so agreed had their suits come before the Court of Common Rights, and Captain Hutton was enumerated. The prisoners then scattered throughout Eastern Pennsylvania, New York and Connecticut, where they were kindly entertained and found employment according to their different trades. At different times the persecuted Covenanters were banished to New Jersey, Delaware and South Carolina, but in the latter part of the seventeenth century this cruelty ceased. At this time no organized society of Covenanters has an existence in New Jersey."

 John P. Wall & Harold Pickersgill, eds.: Chapt. IV, "Settlement in the Raritan Valley," in Vol. I, History of Middlesex County, New Jersey. New York & Chicago: Lewis Historical Publishing Co., Inc., 1921, pp. 24-25.

  • Genealogies of New Jersey Families, Volume II, A Genealogical Dictionary of New Jersey, All (see also Alling)
    Author: Joseph R. Klett
    Publication: Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 1996
  • New Aberdeen; or The Scotch Settlement of Monmouth County, New Jersey
    Author: James Steen
    Publication: Journal Steam Print, Matawan, NJ, 1899
    Page: pp. 3, 26, 35
  • The Original Scots Colonists of Early America Supplement: 1607-1704
    Author: David Dobson
    Publication: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., Baltimore, MD, 1998
    Page: p. 24, 45
  • Title: Ships from Scotland to America 1628-1828
    Author: Compiler: David Dobson
    Publication: Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 1998
    Page: p. 57
  • Title: ElectricScotland: Castles of Scotland: Inverary, Url:
    Abbrev: Castles of Scotland-Inverary
  • Title: New Aberdeen; or The Scotch Settlement of Monmouth County, New Jersey
    Author: James Steen
    Publication: Journal Steam Print, Matawan, NJ, 1899
    Page: pp. 4, 35
  • Title: Monmouth County, New Jersey, Deeds: Books A, B, C, D
    Author: Richard S. Hutchinson
    Publication: Heritage Books, Inc., Bowie, MD, 2000
    Page: p. 136 (Book D, p. 211)
  • Title: New Jersey Deeds 1664-1794
    Author: Crestview Lawyers Service and General Board of Proprietors of the Eastern Division of NJ
    Publication: New Jersey State Archives, Summit, NJ, 1974
    Page: Book D, p. 345; Book D, p. 397; East New Jersey Book E, p. 378; Book D, p. 391; Book I, p. 230
  • Title: East New Jersey Deeds
    Page: Liber D, p. 345 ; Liber E, p. 322; Liber E, p. 200; Liber I, p. 299
  • Title: History of Middlesex County New Jersey 1664-1920
    Author: John P. Wall & Harold E. Pickersgill
    Publication: Lewis Historical Publishing Co., Inc., New York & Chicago, 1921
  • Title: History of the Reformed Presbyterian Church in America
    Author: Editor: W. Melancthon Glasgow
    Publication: Baltimore, MD, 1888
    Page: pp. 228-234
  • Title: Monmouth County, New Jersey, Deed Abstracts
    Page: Vol. 1, Sep 1996, pp. 48, 49, 51
  • Title: Monmouth County, New Jersey, Deeds: Books A, B, C, D
    Author: Richard S. Hutchinson
    Publication: Heritage Books, Inc., Bowie, MD, 2000
    Page: p. 42 (Book B, pp. 48, 50); p. 43 (Book B, p. 54); p. 44 (Book B, p. 62)
  • Title: Unrecorded Wills and Inventories Monmouth County, New Jersey: Historical and Genealogical Miscellany, Vol. VI
    Abbrev: Monmouth Co. NJ Unrecord Wills
    Author: John E. Stillwell, M.D.
    Publication: Reprinted for The Shrewsbury Historical Society, Polyanthos, New Orleans, LA, 1975
    Page: pp. 22, pp. 35, 59, 61, 75

John Campbell settled in Frehold, Monmouth Co., NJ but later moved to Philadelphia, PA. He owned property in NJ and PA when he died 1731 in Philadelphia Co., PA. The Indenture by his Heirs to complete his sale of land in NJ was signed by his widow Charity and her new husband George Davidson, all their sons, their daughters and sons-in-law. Daughter Mary and her husband Joseph Langley/Longley signed in Hunterdon Co., NJ, 1 May 1732.

John may have had four years bond service like others before him. Excerpts from the book New Aberdeen, or the Scottish Settlement of Monmouth Coynty, New Jersey by James Steen, A.M., Counsellor-at-Law: Matawan, NJ, Journal Steam Print, 1899 "fifty cents a copy"; p. 3 (first page)-4:
"In August 1683, David Barclay sent to East Jersey by the Ship Exchange, joint stock for his own and other proprietors advantage . . . servants were to remain four years . . . each servant to have 25 acres, the tradesmen among them 30 . . . other Scotsmen came at intervals, some of whom were Quakers and some Presbyterian . . . freedom of conscience being guaranteed by the proprietors."

". . . the return for the 100 acres on which the town of New Aberdeen stood, bears date some years after the actual settlement, in Secretary of State office in Trenton, Book 14, p. 438, "Surveyed and laid out for [a list which includes] . . . John Campbell . . . granted to these persons by patent dated June 7, 1701."
p. 26:
Woodrow's Scottish Church sufficiently indicates the origin of many of these immigrants to Jersey, and doubtless most of the rest could be traced with a little trouble. Thus in Vol. 3 p. 221 we find that John and Archibald Campbell were banished.
p. 35:
William Naughty . . . will dated Feb. 12th 1702-3 was witnessed by Andrew Barnett, John (I. C.) Campbell and Allan (A. C.) Caldwell, the last two making their mark.
John Campbell is named as a planter, in a deed for lands on Manalapan, conveyed by Campbell to another Scotsman, William Davidson, a carpenter, April 26th, 1695. This he also signed with his mark . . . this land was probably Campbell's first purchase, as in 1690 John Reid sold Edward a lot bounded west by this tract. His cattle mark was recorded in the Middletown book in Feb, 1687. It is more than likely that this was the same John Campbell that sailed from Leith, September 5th, 1685, on the Henry and Francis.


MARY CAMPBELL married JOSEPH LONGLEY and was living in Hunterdon Co., NJ in 1731-1732 when they signed an Indenture dated 2 Oct 1731 between the Heirs of JOHN CAMPBELL (Mary's father) of Manhatawny, Philadelphia Co., PA and Gershon Mott of Middletown, Monmouth Co., NJ, for a 300 acre tract of land on the East side of the Shoolkil River in Philadelphia Co. bought by John Campbell on 18 May 1716! John sold it to Gershon Mott but died before giving him the deed; Gershon Mott had paid Campbell 20 pounds, and now agreed to pay the family 10 pounds. Gershon Mott had a patent 1697 in Monmouth Co.

This valuable Indenture gives the names of Heirs of JOHN CAMPBELL, yeoman ~ two sons and seven daughters (four married, one widowed, two spinsters):

  • George DAVIDSON, cordwainer, and CHARITY his wife, widow of John Campbell late of Manhatawny, Philadelphia Co., PA, signed 19 Apr 1732 Philadelphia
  • son WALTER CAMPBELL, signed 22 Apr 1732 Philadelphia
  • son DUNCAN CAMPBELL of Monmouth Co., NJ, signed and recorded 2 May 1732 Monmouth Co., NJ
  • dau. MARGARET PARKER, widow, of Manhatawny, signed 22 Apr 1732 Philadelphia
  • dau. Mary and husband JOSEPH LONGLEY, signed 1 May 1732 Hunterdon Co., NJ and recorded as their deed
  • dau. EFFA and husband JOHN DIMIT, signed 24 May 1732 Province of New York
  • dau. JANE and husband WALTER WEALSON/WILSON, signed 2 May 1732 Monmouth Co., NJ and recorded as their deed
  • dau. ELIZABETH and husband JAMES OLD, signed 22 Apr 1732 Philadelphia
  • dau. PRISCILLA CAMPBELL, spinster, signed 22 Apr 1732 Philadelphia
  • dau. DORCAS CAMPBELL, spinster, was signed by her jurat: Penington Brockden, but I don't see date
  • Those incidences of Monmouth Co., NJ, suggest that's where John Campbell lived before he bought the land in Philadelphia Co. -- Middletown, NJ is quite near the coast, and about 75 miles from Philadelphia? I don't find Manhatawny on my road atlas. It mentions the Shoolkil [Schulkyl] River as a border of the property, and probably today part of Philadelphia.

    For the full text of the Indenture (transcription by the late Joanne McFadden).

    For more Bodine information, Recommended Web Page:


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